Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The Democratic Republic of Congo has been experiencing the same war for over two decades, and there is a strong correlation between the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s demographic indicator rates and the conflict (World Factbook). Although research has shown that all of the demographic indicator rates are slowly declining, the conflicts inside and bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo are the central causes of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s high migration rates, high death rates, high birth and fertility rates, and considerably young population (International Programs). In 1996, Rwanda and Uganda invaded the Democratic Republic of Congo and that year marks the beginning of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s unusual migration patterns (How Gold Pays). According to the OIM website,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The ministry of public health, Dr Pierre Opetha, explained that only around five percent of the countrys budget is put towards improving healthcare. In developed countries, the average amount of funds put aside for health care is between fifteen and twenty percent (Guardian). In 2011, the Democratic Republic of Congo was among the top 5 countries in Africa with the highest infant mortality rate, but as of 2013, the country has declined in rank. In the past, health care for mothers was almost nonexistent. In 2008, a little over fifty percent of women received some kind of health care assistance from a skilled worker. There were only eleven medical workers per ten thousand people in the region (Associated Press). This is part of the reason why the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s infant mortality rate is 74.87 deaths per 1000 live births (World Factbook). Although the rate is slowly decreasing, it is still very high compared to a country like Sweden that has a rate of 3 per 1000 (Associated Press). Moreover, the infant mortality rate is high, because the income of most families is too low to support every member. In the Guardian article, there was a family of 9 living off of the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s income which was about thirty dollars a month (Guardian). The declination of the rate over the years is partially contributed by the increase in immunizations and vaccines. For instance, the percentage of immunizations for the measles has increase from 38 percent in 1990 to 76 percent in 2009 (WorldShow MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast Communism, Socialism, and Capitalism2094 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesdistributions will be in accordance with the maxim. German author Emil Ludwig described the maxim as Ã¢â¬Å"for each according to his capacity, to each according to his need.Ã¢â¬ (1) It is to be distinguished from socialism which aims by constitutional and democratic methods to nationalize gradually only the essential means of production and to organize distribution on the basis of a just rewa rd to each person for the amount and quality of his or her work. In its early forms the term Ã¢â¬Å"communismÃ¢â¬ first cameRead MoreAssessment Performance of Public Utility in Nigeria: a Study of Nepa9699 Words Ã |Ã 39 Pagesadvanced learners dictionary is a service provided for the public. It is a service used by everyone. Utility services covers a wide range of activity including electricity, water, transportation and Telecommunication. These services impact greatly on a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth and the living standards of the people. They affect the ability of the local industries to produce products that can compete favourably on the international market. The provision of these services in Nigeria as in many developingRead MoreGlobalization and It Effects on Cultural Integration: the Case of the Czech Republic.27217 Words Ã |Ã 109 PagesGLOBALIZATION AND IT EFFECTS ON CULTURAL INTEGRATION: THE CASE OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC. INTRODUCTION I. AN OVERVIEW. With the growing standards of the world and the existing concepts and complexities in political, economic and socio-cultural ideologies, man has always and continuously pondered over the aspects of his nature. Unity, equality, trade and commerce are at the forefront of mans complexities. With these thoughts in mind, man has moved through history trying to satisfy his desiresRead MoreThe Cause of Globalization18688 Words Ã |Ã 75 Pagesnorth and south, and complex multinational production regimes were simply unheard of a century ago. The remaining perspectives on global trends debate the causes of this unprecedented wave of international market integration. The root of the analytic problem lies in the commingling of three secular trends: technological innovations lowering the costs of moving goods and more notably information around the world, growing international economic activity, and the liberalization of foreign economic policiesRead MoreA Study On A Culture Of Peace10177 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesthe beginning. It gives hints about the concept of a culture of peace and emphasizes on the roles of education particularly higher education for the building of a culture of peace in Ethiopia. The second part of the chapter deals with the research problem statement followed by the basic research questions. Subsequently, the main and specific objectives of the study are also included followed by the rationale and contributions of the study. The focus of the study is also included in this chapter followedRead MorePolitical Risk Management and Insurance: A Contextual Comparison12751 Words Ã |Ã 51 Pagesworld are ranked according to this scale where 0 corresponds to the lowest positions and 100 to the highest. Chapter-2 Political Risk Management World politics are hardy predictable with most countries all around the world having political problems. This can be seen in countries north of Africa and also in the Middle East countries. In just the last one year, a lot of political changes have taken place in these regions of the world with some countries moving from one political regime to anotherRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words Ã |Ã 269 PagesOrganizational Cultures in MNCs Family Culture Eiffel Tower Culture Guided Missile Culture Incubator Culture 170 174 176 176 177 178 Managing Multiculturalism and Diversity Phases of Multicultural Development Types of Multiculturalism Potential Problems Associated with Diversity Advantages of Diversity Building Multicultural Team Effectiveness A Successful Multicultural Workforce 180 180 182 183 185 185 187 The World of International ManagementÃ¢â¬âRevisited Summary of Key Points Key Terms ReviewRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesotherwise unremarkable last and first years of the old and new millennia, represented both a return to trends reminiscent of the opening decades of the twentieth century and a major break from the prevailing dynamics of the cold war. In addition to the problems posed for conceptualizing the twentieth century as a discrete era of world history due to overlap with the preceding period and disconcertingly radical shifts in the course of global development in the 1900s, contradictory forces and trends, whichRead MoreEdexcel Igcse Economics Answer49663 Words Ã |Ã 199 PagesQuestion 1: (a) The population of Australia has increased from 19.2 million to 20.4 million over the time period. The data in the graph shows that net migration is falling. However, there are still more people entering the country than leaving. In 2008, net migration was 3.72 per 1000. Consequently, the growth in AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s population is due, at least in part, to growing numbers of immigrants. Ã © Pearson Education Ltd 2010 3 (b) As the size of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s population grows there will be
Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2949 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? STRATEGIC MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS EMIRATES: TAKING THE IMC ROUTE INTRODUCTION Emirates Airlines established in 1985, is a subsidiary of the Emirates Group, a public international travel conglomerate in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. An Emirate is the largest airline in the Middle East operating its flights hub at Dubai International Airport to various countries all over the world. Emirates initiated flying internationally with two aircraft Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" a leased Boeing 737 an Airbus 300 B4. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Strategic Marketing Emirates Taking the IMC Route" essay for you Create order Its main focus on providing quality services to customers instead of focusing on quantity of customers. Due to its despite efforts supportive attitude towards customers, Emirates became a market leader in the global airline industry within a short span of time. The overall profit of Emirates grew at a faster rate with a minimum 20 per cent hike every year hence became the fastest-growing youngest fleets in the aviation industry. Because of their excellence in providing satisfactory quality services to the customers, Emirates earned majority of awards globally. It also deals in cargo activities, which is taken by Emirates GroupÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Emirates Sky Cargo division. OVERVIEW OF THE CASE STUDY This case study discusses on the overall effort made by the Emirates to ensure the consistency the effectiveness of messages targeted to various audiences. The Emirates has used Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) approach for marketing their services in front of customer s. Majority of the companies have paid close attention to the IMC approach. Various IMC tools such as television commercials, print advertisements, internet marketing, charitable foundations, in-plane advertisements, sponsorships trade promotions have been utilized by the Emirates in order to achieve an excellent market position a positive brand image in the minds of its current potential customers. Emirates could easily reach their target audience via these mentioned modes of marketing promotions. Due to its continuous effort towards marketing the brand services, Emirates maximized exposure rate. Several Challenges Encountered By the Emirates to distribute an individual message about the high class facilities for its customers to create a brand name in front of its customers Explain how EmiratesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ promoting approach has been effective in constructing an optimistic trademark appearance with current potential customers? Classify the IMC tools used by Emirates? Emirates flies all over the world. Should Emirates modify its messages channels according to where it advertises? Explain. DISCUSSION OF THE TASKS CONFRONTED BY THE EMIRATES A1. The marketing strategy of Emirates includes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Approach Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" EmiratesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ advertising policy has been efficacious in generating a progressive brand image in the minds of its current potential customers by embracing the IMC approach for marketing its brand. An IMC concept is an approach of achieving the objectives of a marketing campaign, via proper efficient use of promotional tools methods that are intended to reinforce each other. It enables that all forms of communications messages are linked together hence work simultaneously in harmony rather than in isolation. This approach is used by the organisation to create a unified brand experience for consumers across several communication channels. As marketing efforts have been moved from mass marketing to slot promoting, companies have growing use IMC to cultivate more economical promotions that still distribute value to the customers. Emirates think global Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Emirates have set out to be an innovative, modern customer-oriented provider of high quality air travel services. Its brand positioning is that of a leading, international quality airline serving the global community. Living the brand Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Emirates deliver on their brand promise of innovation quality. Emirates end line Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âkeep discoveringÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã sums up its philosophy on travel: Only Emirates lets you discover a more authentic fulfilling life. Do remarkable things Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Emirates do remarkable things for integrated marketing communications activities such as advertising, sponsorship, e-commerce, public relations supportive communications. Engaging customers Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Emirates have effectively used www.emirates.com to drive the brand experience, maintain cordial relation with the customers by launching frequent flyer program skywards. Through such an effort, Emirates has easily reaches their target audience hence successfully developed a strong relation with their customers. Open up Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Emirates mobilising customers to actively participate in the experience other promotional events activities in order to market their service in front of the customers Hence, by using the above mentioned message strategies, Emirates has successfully developed a positive brand image into the market in front of their customers. A2.Emirates use a variety of marketing communication tools in an integrated way to deliver one message about the high quality of its services along with maximising its message exposure rate. Various IMC tools used by Emirates are- Advertisements Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" An advertisement is a way of publicity or promoting a product, service or any event. There are several modes of advertisements such as online advertising, newspaper ads, radio advertising, television advertising, public speaking, door hangers, flyers word-of-mouth advertising. Emirates utilize the commercials print advertisements for highlighting the airlineÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s new products, routes, services aircraft. It helps in fostering its services. Sponsorship Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Sponsorship is another form of promotional activity. Emirates have undergone partnership with several events both regional international like FIFA. Moreover, Emirates is dedicated to the growth of global arts culture through a number of sponsorships around the world. In fact, Emirates believe that sponsorship is the best way to develop a cordial relation with customers. E-commerce Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" E-commerce is referred to as purchasing or selling goods or services, or the conducting of assets or data, over an electronic system, mainly an internet. It is also referred to as an electronic commerce. Emirates enable customers to perform online shopping of Emirates related merchandise via its official retail website (emiratesofficialstore.com). Public Relation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Emirates publish three in-flight magazines in order to reach readers passengers during their journey. Through such magazines, passengers are usually encouraged to donate to the Emirates Airline Foundation, which seeks to improve the quality of children. Magazines are the best source of marketing the products or services, as it contains articles illustrations, which attracts customer attention towards it. So, by means of magazines, Emirates has gained majority of market shares along with the competitive advantage in the airline industry. Supportive Communication Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Supportive communications is referred to as a style of communicating with customers that has a particular set of aims techniques. The principal objective is to resolve conflict or attain variation in a situation, while protective, even strengthening, the relationship between the communicating individuals. EmiratesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ on-board entertainment system has been highly recognized as a market leader, winning awards for its quality enabling the airline to show passengers commercials about it latest offers, partners services. A3.Tagline is a short prominent or memorable phrase used in advertising. It identifies the uniqueness of a brand or conveys some type of special meaning. The taglines which are used in the past by the Emirates airline in order to gain market value customer preference in aviation industry are Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Emirates Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" The finest in the sky Fly Emirates Be good to yourself. When was the last time you did something for the first time? Keep Discovering. Hello Tomorrow. No doubt Emirates has already gained an excellent market position a positive brand image in the minds of its customers via IMC approach its tools but still I believe that Emirates should modify its messages channels by embracing new ideas, new technology good quality services to the customers in order to maintain their position in the market as well as to gain a competitive advantage over its rivals. REFERENCES https://prezi.com/hpx2kqzh_0ck/copy-of-emirates/ en.wikipedia.org CASE 2 SOUTH AUSTRALIAN FOOD MARKETING INTRODUCTION The South Australian government established South Australia (SA) Food Centre in 2008 in order to provide practical advice to food businesses in Australia. Due to the agency its expertise, many other businesses have taken advantages. Countries such as Japan, the United States Hong Kong are the major exporter of the South Australian Food market. Some products like meat, seafood, fruit cheese are the main export food of the South Australian Food market. The main aim of the South Australian (SA) Food Centre is to promote South Australian food businesses through various modes such as Food Talk (an online magazine), Food-e-News (e-mail news updates) the PremierÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Food Awards (awards for South Australian food producers). The key purpose of the South Australian (SA) Food Centre is to create a collaborative partnership with industry government, in order to ensure a thriving South Australian food industry. OVERVIEW OF THE CASE STUDY This case study discusses on the overall effort made by the South Australian (SA) Food Centre in order to make sure that their brand is exciting to consumers, by focusing on factors such as packaging labelling. It also encourages food producers to promote their products brands by not only informing consumers about their availability, but to highlight what is special about a particular product. After performing continuous efforts of establishing collaboration with industry government, one such result came in front from the well-known CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Group Limited. The CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s group limited is known for selling fruits sports water flavoured with fruit juices. So, due to collaboration with CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s group limited, SA fruit growers received a considerable boost from CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Group Limited. In-fact SA Food Centre promotes various events, including annual food festivals shopping appearan ces alongside celebrity chefs media personalities. Due to their despite efforts towards food industry, the South Australian (SA) mushroom industry gained three main campaigns. So, this well supported program is indicative of the activities of the SA Food Centre. Several Challenges Encountered By the South Australian (SA) Food Centre What type of message strategy should SA Food Centre utilize? Should it be the same for all of the brands in all of the markets? What leverage point makes the most sense for South Australian food producersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ advertising? What type of executional framework should be used in traditional advertisements aimed at consumers? DISCUSSION OF THE TASKS CONFRONTED BY THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN (SA) FOOD CENTRE A1. Message strategy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Message strategy is a basic step in generating an effective promoting message. It provides the groundwork for rest of the marketing operation. There are three types of message strategy which should be used by SA Food Centre utilize such as: Cognitive message strategy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" A cognitive message strategy offerings coherent opinions or fragments of evidence to customers. Among all five types of cognitive message strategies, they should make use of pre-emptive message strategy in order to advertise their products. The idea requires cognitive processing. It makes a claim of superiority based on products specific attributes or assistance with the intent of averting the rivalries from making the same claims. Customers can obtain benefits by purchasing the product. The South Australian (SA) Food Centre could utilize a cognitive message strategy for motivating the food producers to promote their brands by highlighting about what is special in their products for the consumers. By this strategy, food producers can describe attributes like healthiness, pleasant tasting or low calorie many more. So, the marketing promotion of the food products can be increased via cognitive message strategy. Affective message strategy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" In affective message strategy, the South Australian (SA) Food Centre could use an emotional advertising method to promote their products in the market. Advertisements that invoke feelings or emotions match those feelings with the good, service, or company use affective message strategies. These messages try to heighten the amiability of the product, recall of the appeal, or comprehension of the advertisement. Affective strategies elicit emotions that, in turn, lead the consumers to act, preferably by buying the product, subsequently affecting the consumerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s reasoning process. Many emotions can be connected to products, including trust, reliability, friendship, happiness, security, glamour, luxury, serenity, pleasure, romance passion. Affective strategy may help in developing a stronger brand name. It helps in creating a positive feeling of the customers towards product. Conative message strategy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" A conative message strategy is aimed to lead openly to specific category of consumer response. It supports the promotional efforts, such as coupon redemption programs, internet hits orders, in-store offers like buy-one-get-one-free. In conative message strategy, they depend on action-including conative advertisements, where, situations are created in which cognitive knowledge of the product or affective liking of the product may come later or during product usage. There will be no strength in the unity of a South Australian brand because if it happens, then it will lead to the brand parity so they need to differential the product that lead to equity customer loyalty. So, it is quite essential to utilize a unique message strategy for all of the brands in all of the markets. A2.Leverage point Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Leverage pointsare those interpretations, if any, made at extreme or remote standards of theindependent variablessuch that the lack of adjacent explanations means that the tailored regression model will pass close to that particular observation. A leverage point interchanges the customer from accepting a productÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s benefits to linking those benefits with personal values. In order to construct a quality leverage point, the creative builds the pathway that connects a product benefit with the potential buyerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s value system. The two leverage points which makes the most sense for South Australian f ood producersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ advertising are Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Government Industry The reason behind that they get a feedback that leads to service credibility to South Australian Food Centres. The leverage points here link product attributes so that it will focus on factors such as packaging labelling Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" consumers benefits that it will be make sure that their brand is exciting to consumersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ value that itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s related to industry value. The fundamental purpose of the South Australian (SA) Food Centre is to construct a co-operative conglomerate with both industry government. Through this, they could build up strong cordial relations with several agencies corporations, which further enable the South Australian (SA) food producers to market promote their food products into the market with an optimum level of efforts. The leverage point message links these attributes benefits to consumer values. An effective leverage point can be associated with an attitudinal change, especially when the cognitive Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢Ã affective Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢Ã conative sequence exists. As a result of collaboration of the South Australian food producers with an industry government, South Australian fruit growers received a considerable boost from CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Group Limited, the manufactures of CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Phoenix Organics. It was great news for South AustraliaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s fruit growers as CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s propelled a new promoting campaign in order to support or promote their products or services. Due to such efforts made by both South Australian Food Centre as well as CharlieÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Group, the South Australian food producers have benefited a lot in attaining market value along with customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s preference towards their product line. A3.For traditional advertisements aimed at consumers, the South Australian (SA) Food Centre should use emotional framework to connect with consumers get them engage by providing them the value that fulfil their requirements expectations in the product. An executional framework displays the method in which an advertisement plea will be offered. It would be selected in conjunction with an advertising appeal message strategy. The common types of appeal include fear, humour, sex, music, rationality, emotions, scarcity. It is essential that each can be matched with the appropriate executional framework. Several frameworks which could be used by South Australian Food Marketing are: Animation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Animation has become a progressively prevalent executional framework, its usage has escalated intensely. Animation can be presented in both televisions as well as in internet advertising. One sensational animation method is roto-scoping. Roto-scoping is the process of numerically painting or outlining statistics into live arrangements, which makes it possible to present both live actors animated characters in the same structure. Animation helps in creating traditional advertisements funny, interesting attractive for behalf of customers. Dramatization Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Dramatization is the best way of learning as it makes a situation more imperative or serious than it really is. It helps consumers to understand traditional advertisements easily frequently. An effective dramatic advertisement can be hard to create, but once it is shaped, it puts a strong positive impact into the minds of customers. Testimonials Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Testimonials are also an effective mode of promoting services. It is referred to as a prescribed declaration testifying to someoneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s character experiences. It is like an individual recommendation. It is a declaration in provision of a specific reality, fact or claim. It can also be used by South Australian Food Marketing for impacting a strong impression of technical advertisements in front of customers. Demonstration Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" A demonstration, in short demo, displays how a product works. It provides an effective way to converse the benefits of a product to audiences. It highlighted the productÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s numerous usages. Demonstrated ads are well-matched to television the internet. It attracts customersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ attention hence makes them more fascinating towards product line. Fantasy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Fantasy refers to as an imagination. Fantasy execution encourages the audience beyond the actual world to a make-believe experience. The most common fantasy themes involve sex, love romance. So, fantasy fits pleasantly with target viewers that have a preference for a tamer demonstration of sexuality. So, these executional frameworks could be utilised by South Australian Food Marketing for technical advertisements while aiming at consumers in order to attain competitive advantage over the rivals. REFERENCES https://prezi.com/mc-trx1gbx6m/untitled-prezi/# en.wikipedia.org NEW ZEALAND COLLEGE OF BUSINESS (NZCB)Page 1
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Set in the times of the Industrial Revolution, BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Chimney Sweeper is a powerful attempt to fight one of the biggest social injustices at the time: child labour. He illustrates the heartbreaking life story of thousands of kids through two different points of view, one is exposed in the poem pertaining to Songs of Innocence (1789) and the other one is exposed in Songs of Experience (1794). Both poems share the same outline; however, it is the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s view the one that changes drastically between the poems. In the eldest version, the author presents the readers with a young chimney sweeper full of hope and aspiration whereas in the most recent poem the author reflected a slightly more experienced child that does not believe inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the second one, however, the rhyme scheme was not as defined and there were even some free rhyme verses. As it would be expected, this breaks completely the musicality of the poem making the verses sound sharp and losing all possible flow. Both versions share a common idea that is widely discussed: religion. In the first poem when guided through TomÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, an angel is the one that set the children free. After escaping the coffins, which represent the chimneys they have to sweep daily, the young chimney sweepers arrive in paradise, where no worries or sad thoughts seem to exist. When Tom finally wakes up, he comforts himself with the idea that once they die, the reward for all his hard work will be heaven. In other words, the only hope they have left is the paradox of having a life after they pass out. Blake managed to first create a very soft atmosphere in the first stanzas and then progressively darken the environment until reaching its climax at the end. (Insert quote) In contrast, in the second poem, the chimney sweeper has lost all of the faith he had left. He explains how his parents abandoned him to live this life on his own. He even suggests that they lie to themselves trying to find comfort in idealistic situations that are very far from his daily life reality. The young narrator is very critical with religion for using their situation to win adepts (Insert quote) In religion, Heaven is thought to be paradise afterlife andShow MoreRelatedEssay on the Chimney Sweeper958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEnglish 102-B12 LUO Spring 2014 Joseph P Garland Jr L23810423 MLA A literary analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney Sweeper.Ã¢â¬ Social Injustice was rampant among chimney sweeps in 18th and 19th Century England... In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney SweeperÃ¢â¬ from Ã¢â¬Å"Songs of InnocenceÃ¢â¬ This paper will evaluate and show the story and writing style dealing with social injustice. 1. Introduction a. The Chimney Sweeper 2. The Location and Era a. 18th and 19th Century England 3. Point of View a. TomRead MoreThe Chimney Sweeper Essay765 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Chimney Sweeper by William BlakeÃ¢â¬ In William BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, the reader will read about the first person point of view of a child going through a neglected life of child labour and slavery. In the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney SweeperÃ¢â¬ , BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of onomatopoeia conveys the emotions of the character in the poem. William Blake uses symbolism in his poem which gives the reader a better understanding of the message he is trying to convey. As well, BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of colors and adjectives provides the readerRead More William Blakes Chimney Sweeper Essay1976 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWilliam Blakes Chimney Sweeper In this essay I am going to explore Blakes Chimney Sweeper poems from the Songs of Innocence and the Songs of Experience. During this essay I will cover Blakes life and times and the way chimney sweepers get treated around that time and what Blake attempts to do about it. Blake was born on November 28 in the year 1757. His parents where strict but understanding. Blakes parents realized early in his life that Blake was gifted. HeRead MoreMarxism in The Chimney Sweeper Essay examples1927 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn his poem, The Chimney Sweeper, William Blake displays the despondent urban life of a young chimney sweeper during the coming of the industrial revolution in order to emphasize the theme of innocence through Marxism and to inform people of the harsh working conditions during the times of child labor promoting political reform. William Blake was born in London on November 28, 1757, to James and Catherine Blake. From early childhood, Blake spoke of having visions. He learned to read and write atRead MoreEssay about The Voice of the Chimney Sweepers1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmornings to do a full dayÃ¢â¬â¢s work, for half the pay of an adultÃ¢â¬â¢s, even though the quality of work was the same. Children were sent off the squeeze into small places day after day. Limbs could break. Soot was inhaled. The poisonous chemicals in the chimneys caused hazardous situations, and thu s medically, the children were hindered. Children worked anywhere from six to eight hours a day, and were expected to get up bright and early the next day to show up for work. On the occasions that they were allowedRead MoreThe Chimney Sweeper by William Blake Essay596 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn the Chimney Sweeper, William Blake portrays the lack of innocence in these young boys lives since they are expected to have attained the experience to preform such unjust actions. The speaker of the poem begins it by letting us know that after his mother passed away his father gave him up to be a chimneysweeper so he could obtain money. These two figures, his mother and father are whom kids are supposed to depend on and look up for guidance. He feels abandoned because his mother is gone andRead More William Blakes The Chimney Sweeper Essay918 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWilliam BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Chimney Sweeper Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã William BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney SweeperÃ¢â¬ was mainly about the possibilities of both hope and faith. Although the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s connotation is that of a very dark and depressed nature, the religious imagery Blake uses indicates that the sweeps will have a brighter future in eternity. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In lines 4 Ã¢â¬â 8 when Blake writes, Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s little Tom Dacre, who cried when his head, That curled like a lambÃ¢â¬â¢s back, was shaved: so I said Ã¢â¬ËHush, Tom! never mind it,Read More William Blakes The Chimney Sweeper Essay672 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWilliam Blakes The Chimney Sweeper William Blakes The Chimney Sweeper, written in 1789, tells the story of what happened to many young boys during this time period. Often, boys as young as four and five were sold for the soul purpose of cleaning chimneys because of their small size. These children were exploited and lived a meager existence that was socially acceptable at the time. Blake voices the evils of this acceptance through point of view, symbolism, and his startling irony. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã BlakeRead MoreInnocence and Experience in Blakes The Chimney Sweeper Essay605 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesInnocence and Experience in Blakes The Chimney Sweeper The most obvious difference between the two poems would be the length, although this is not necessarily a difference between innocence and experience, it does lure the reader into the right frame of mind to read into the attitude of each poem. Innocence consists of six, four-line stanzas, where as experience is only three, four-line stanzas. The length of each line is also longer in innocence when compared toRead MoreEssay on Innocence Stolen in William BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Chimney Sweeper843 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout world history their have been and are many occurrences of society corruption and oppression of masses, such as the forcing of small children to sweep chimneys. Thus, William BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s Purpose in writing the two Ã¢â¬Å"The Chimney SweeperÃ¢â¬ poems was to express his outrage at society for having oppressed and stolen the innocence of powerless children in forcing them to sweep. Both poems are similar in that he uses the actions and view point of the child speaker to express his rage against society
Part A 1. Does natural light contains electricity? If so, how is it possible? 2. What is the difference between current and voltage? 3. Can current and voltage be interchanged? 4. Can you please explain electricity? 5. How is it possible to add more resistance to a circuit that has already been established? Part B Why earthÃ¢â¬â¢s Magnetic Shield Matters Prompt #1: Did it surprise you to know how much our magnetic field protects us? No, it did not surprise me as to how our magnetic field is protecting us from the sun. How do you think life on Earth would be affected if magnetic field weakened significantly? Just like the planet Mars life would become non-existent due to the fact that without water. The plants and food source would dry up leaving the human race to die of starvation. Have you heard anything in scientific news recently about Earth s magnetic field? The only thing that Ii have heard about the magnetic field that surrounds the earth is in reference to the ozone level. I heard that through the pollution that we are causing in the air is damaging the ozone and this is something that cannot be replace. When it is gone it is gone similar to yesterday. What would happen if Earth s magnetic field flipped? Learning from the planet Mars if the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s magnetic field was to flip we would end up just like the planet desolated. I think that it is possible that we would survive for some time but eventually the radiation would get the best of the earth as well as theShow MoreRelatedThe Underlying Science And Physics Behind Touchscreens On Iphones855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunderlying science and physics behind touchscreens on iPhones is the concept of electricity, and specifically the way electricity passes through the human body and interacts with an inanimate object. Without electricity, heat could only be provided through a fireplace and light could only be provided through candles. In addition, all of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technologies is run on electricity. The formal definition of electricity is, Ã¢â¬Å"a form of energy resulting from the result of charged particles, either staticallyRead MoreThe Solar Of Solar Cell1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA solar cell is a device which produces electricity through the conversion of light energy, through the photovoltaic effect. The photovoltaic effect is a chemical and physical phenomenon, and relates to the creation of electrical current within a material when it is exposed to light. Solar cells are considered to be photovoltaic, despite whether the source of light is produced artificially, or is from the sun. History of a Solar Cell It was in 1839 when the photovoltaic effect was first discoveredRead MorePotato Battery754 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessincerest gratitude the following persons for the support they gave to them in the accomplishment of this investigatory project. Mrs. Rosie Castillo, who guide us and helped us in making this project. Who gave us the opportunity to make this project possible. Our classmates, who helped us whenever we are misguided and whenever we have difficulties. Mrs. Carpio, who serves as our second mother, who keeps on supporting us and serving as our guardian in school especially at times that we are in the wrongRead MoreConcerns of Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespeople should cut down on the usage of fossil fuels and depend more on green energy. This will stop thousands of harmful pollutants and toxics from entering our atmosphere in the form of CO2. There are three major forms of fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are considered nonrenewable resources because fossil fuels get consumed quicker than they can reform. Fossil fuels were formed millions of years ago during the Carboniferous period. During that time period, the earth was filled withRead MoreCan We Colonize Space750 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswith civilization and a prosperous new world beckons at our feet. This world will be the new residence for human beings. For thirty years, the scientist, technology, engineering and math population truly believed that colonizing a new world would be possible. All that we needed was to find a world that had the necessary qualities of breathable air, similar climate to Earth and drinkable water. A planet was found with similar conditions to Earth and the means of transportation are available for the entireRead MoreThe Sun Was The Main One Essay963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesair from the sun that can make us warm, and can be used - which is correct. However, she does not know how heat is formed or its movement abilities. 2. Emily had no understanding of the term Ã¢â¬ËfrictionÃ¢â¬â¢. She may possibly identify that hands rubbing together cause them to warm up, but she has no prior knowledge to give a friction topic response. 3. The Science concept that the sun is an important natural energy source where heat comes from was identified by Emily. As suggested her idea wasRead MoreA World Without Fossil Fuels, Greenhouse Emissions And Global Warming1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesImagine a world without fossil fuels, greenhouse emissions and global warming. Cosmic radiant energy? What? No natural gas, oil, coal, or any other fuel used to power industrial machines? Free energy? Oh! That will never happen and the Ã¢â¬Å"Captains of IndustryÃ¢â¬ will make sure of it! An innovator of a modern era was reawakening theories of ancient man. While many people did not support Nikola Tesla, his Ã¢â¬Å"Green EnergyÃ¢â¬ invention was brilliant; it was a way to save the planet and free mankind from theRead MoreThe Best Type Of Energy1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesover the United States is over 2,500 times the entire countryÃ¢â¬â¢s daily energy usage combined. Photovoltaic energy is used to power solar panels by having particles of light, photons, free electrons from their atoms, thus generating electricity. Solar panels are composed of photovoltaic cells; these cells turn sunlight into electricity. Each cell is made up of two pieces of semi-conducting material, typically silicon, which is used to establish an electric field. This field occurs when opposite chargesRead MoreThe University Of Massachusetts Boston2290 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBoston still faces on campus is energy consumption from light usage throughout the day. Though energy saving light bulbs are used throughout the campus, but the lights always seem to be on even when no one is in the classrooms or conference rooms. What UMass Boston should be addressing with this problem is what aspects of the building designs have to be changed, what has to be put into place in order to decrease the energy consumption from light usage on campus, and how this beneficial to the universityRe ad MoreIs Masdar City A Massive Industry?1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescollect solar energy. Instead of using all new, modern techniques for the buildings in Masdar City, the architects decided to implement ancient designs. In Abu Dhabi 70 percent of residential electricity is used on air conditioning. In order to lessen this energy usage the architects used two natural cooling agents: wind and shade. The idea behind this is that cooling the streets would draw people outside rather than sweltering heat forcing people inside their air conditioned homes. One of
Question: Discuss about the Short Messaging Service standard. Answer: SMS Service After the send SMS button is pressed from Malaysia by the sender, in the background there goes a lot of tasks, for the recipient who is sitting in London to get the SMS. This is the Application layer of the OSI model. When the button is pressed the SMS is sent to the store and forward mechanism, also known as the data link layer. The Short Messaging Service standard describes what type of data is directed in a text message, the number of bits in a binary code are made up using each letter, and how these data are organized with the purpose of how the sending and receiving devices interconnect with each other (Chutijirawong and Kanawattanachai 2014). These types of details are described by Protocol Description Unit or the PDU, strings of the hexadecimal-octets and semi decimal-octets. Hexadecimal being values in base 16, with 09 to represent values zero to nine, and A,B,C,D,E andF to represent values ten to fifteen. The text SMS from the sending mobile gets stored in the central SMC, w hich is later forwarded to the desired destination that is London for this case. The SMS service uses a separate channel, then the channels that are normally used for the calling service so that there is no loss of the data or disturbance in the calling interface. This control channel is generally used to the track down the network that is currently registered and where the SMS is to be sent. The main reason for storing the SMS is that there can be made a number of attempts to deliver the SMS. This is to be done in the network the task of the network layer. If the receivers device is switched off or if the device is out of range, the SMS will be stored in the SMC system and will be delivered when the receiver becomes accessible again this task is done in the transport layer. In order to send the SMS, the SMC needs to know the location(London) where the SMS is to be sent. Once the SMC knows the location that is London where the SMS is needed to be sent, it changes the switching connections over to the correct mobile network station. The SMS is lastly transported to the corresponding BSS or the Base Station System. The Base Station System comprises of the transceivers which are used to send and receive messages over the air This is the task of the session layer. This data is forwarded over the signaling channels, in order to that the mobile can receive the SMS even if there is an ongoing voice call is going on (Acker 2014). The Base Station System is the final stratagem that transmits the text message to the correct mobile device. In case of the 4g networks this process is bit faster because of the Internet connections that are available, and hence by this process, the receiver who is sitting at London receives an SMS from the location sent. Although the process seems to be a large one but takes very small amount of time. Difference between the cost speed and sound quality. The mobile application does provide a better calling and messaging facility rather the inbuild mobile functions, this is because that the application uses the technology of the 4g. Volte. The advantage of this system over the 2gGSM technology is that the application usage of the voice over LTE, that is voice is sent through the internet instead of the traditional radio networks. This in term so of the calls is better because of the usage of the 15MHz bandwidth and operating under the following frequency ranges: Tower Tx: 1805-1820MHz and Tower Rx: 1710-1725MHz and hence providing a greater scope of the network. A standard call from Malaysia to London calls charges approximately 0.77 Ringgit per minute. The use of the voice over LTE also has better sound quality and it supports the video calling, which was not supported in the previous 2g technology. Although the cost of the 2g was much lower than this technology the cost of implementing this system is considerably higher. Speaking of the messaging service the messaging service in the application is much more effective and efficient. Speaking of the cost, a standard SMS cost approximately 1.94 Ringgit from Malaysia to London, whereas by using the messaging application the cost is considerably zero if the uses have the internet connections (Baby and Antony 2017). One of the other benefits is the factor that a standard supported only a 160 character of text, while in this application there is no limit for the number of the characters to be input. One of the major disadvantage of the 2g technology is the factor that there is low frequency of the networks and hence there are background noises and other calling issue. Also, the 2g generation technology is not that much advanced and is not supported by most of the smartphone in the modern generation. One of the other benefit of the 2g is that the lower power emissions have helped in dealing with health concerns Also the battery consumption of the 2g technology is much lower Thant he modern 4g technology (Mohapatra, Swain and Das 2015). The SMS encryptions systems of the 2g technology was much higher at the time of the launch, but now the technology has become old and there are much advanced encryption systems in the market. The cost of the call in the 2g was much lower that of the 1g, and hence bought a wave of revolution in the mobile phone technology. It can be said that although the 2g spectrum had many of the advantages like the low cost, encryption also had many disadvantages like the noise on call and low network range. The modern 4g technology has many of the advantages over the 2g technology like higher coverage of the network, better digital voice over the internet and other such features, although the cost of the of the technology is much higher than that of the 2g but is much more useful. The messaging service uses this technology and is hence a better option than the inbuilt mobile applications. References Acker, A., 2014. The short message service: Standards, infrastructure and innovation.Telematics and informatics,31(4), pp.559-568. Baby, F. and Antony, P.R., 2017, June. Development of TI console framework for test automation of radio network controller. InIntelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS), 2017 International Conference on(pp. 579-582). IEEE. Chutijirawong, N. and Kanawattanachai, P., 2014. The role and impact of contextdriven personalisation technology on customer acceptance of advertising via short message service (SMS). International Journal of Mobile Communications, 12(6), pp.578-602. Mohapatra, S.K., Swain, B.R. and Das, P., 2015. Comprehensive survey of possible security issues on 4G networks.International Journal of Network Security Its Applications,7(2), p.61.
Effects of Major Political and Social Movements on the Literary Works of 20th Century Essay Example For Students
Effects of Major Political and Social Movements on the Literary Works of 20th Century Essay Just a decade back, the calendar changed from 1999 to 2000 and the event was marked by joyous celebrations and fireworks throughout the world. Television networks broadcasted this grand event from all over the world. Though the year 2000 belongs to the 20th century, none of us were actually bothered celebrating the turn on of the 21st century. However, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think the same celebration took place when the calendar was turning on the very first day of 20th century. Hardly anyone had any idea on that day on what is about to unfold in the coming hundred years. Then the human civilization saw the most eventful century of the entire history. It was a hundred years when human race observed the greatest of the inventions that changed the lifestyle at a very rapid pace. It was the century when various social and political ideologies were born, spread and died. The world saw two of the most devastating global wars, which could have caused the end of mankind. We saw the rise and fall of super powers and we saw a new kind of war that was not fought with the weapons. We saw the end of colonialism and we saw the rise of terrorism. The world economy suffered from two of the greatest financial meltdown. Knowingly or unknowingly, all these great events had enormous effect on the lives of the global citizens. And just like any other time, literary works from this period was influenced massively by the events of this happening century. A hundred years is not a very lengthy period in the context of human civilization. But in these hundred years of 20th century, there were far more remarkable events or happenings than any other century. The century starts with the collapse of imperialism (Twentieth Centurys Triumphant EntryÃ¢â¬ ) which was followed by the collapsing of colonialism during the middle of the century. The first half of the century saw two great wars, World War I (914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945), and the Great Depression during the inter-war years (De 129). This is the century which saw the end of colonialism at the last decade of its first half. This is also the decade when a bomb named Ã¢â¬ËLittle BoyÃ¢â¬â¢ destroyed the life of half million people in Hiroshima in under 5 minutes (Ã¢â¬Å"Tale of Two CitesÃ¢â¬ ). The second half of this century was ruled by a war of nerves, known as the cold war (Thompson 7). The end of the Second World War gave birth of 2 political super powers, United States and the Soviet Union, who tried to rule the post colonial period with their military strength and political influence. The cold war dominated the geographical life for more than 45 years and came to an end with as the Soviet Union collapsed internally in 1991 (Brown). Though this century saw many major wars, the century itself was not just about wars. The century also saw the advancement on other fields such as medicine, science and technology. X-rays, antibiotics, contraceptive, penicillin, vaccination are just to name a few which had changed the world of medicine and so did the life of the people. Advancement in the field of science and technology was just enormous. From television to computers, from satellites to space shuttles- the advancement of science and technology is seen in every single place. Scientific theories such as the theory of relativity drastically changed the world view of the scientist. The mechanization and automation took place on every sector and still taking place even today. This is also the century when mass media, telecommunication and information technology has made the w orldÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge more widely available. The media brought the world closer and as people see the struggle of others, awareness started to build up on issues like human rights and global warming. Apart from the great wars, medical and scientific advancements, 20th century also saw the development of various new philosophical schools. Existentialism, post-structuralism, Marxism, feminism- just are a few to name. Such new philosophic thoughts influenced the religion, politics and social values. Existentialism is generally considered to be the philosophical and cultural movement which holds that the starting point of philosophical thinking must be the individual and the experiences of the individual (Coates). Such philosophic values have strong conformation with many religious philosophies. Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry centered upon a materialist interpretation of history (Wolff, and Cullenberg 130) and was an inspiration for the Russian Revolution of 1917 (Weber, and Vale 4). Then there was the rise of feminism, which means Ã¢â¬Å"the radical notion that women are peopleÃ¢â¬ , according to British suffragist and journ alist Rebecca West. The feminist movement was a social and political movement that sought to establish equality for women and many writers from the 20th century reflected this ideology of equal right in their writing. The 20th century has a great number of writers whose works reflect both the time and the nature of life in this period. However, a very significant notion is that the great literary works from this period did not come only from the American or British writers; it also came from different part of the world. The rise of globalization has allowed European and American literary ideas to spread into non-Western cultures fairly rapidly, so that Asian and African literatures can be included into these divisions with only minor qualifications. Also, many native African or Asian writers either started writing in English or their great works were translated. As a result, the literary resources get richer by day and the reflection of the people and their life from all over the world become more prominent in literature. Since 20th century has seen a very large amount of great literary works, only a handful selection of fiction is used in this paper. Each selection is unique and has its own theme . However, collectively they share a common pattern, portrayal of individuals than society, and show the various effects of socio-political factors of that time. Geosynchronous Orbits EssayFeminism is another phenomenon that has widely influenced the writers of the 20th century. Though the concept of feminism started to grow in the later part of the 19th century, 20th century is the period when it was established as an idealistic movement. Literature from this period started to take a more insightful observation towards the women of the society. Many writers mentioned the oppression and social injustice that women have been facing over the years. The authors also tried to analyze the psychological aspects of women and how the surrounding male dominant environment shapes up their mind. D.H. Lawrence was perhaps the most prominent writer from the 20th century who analyzed woman psychology at a great depth. In Ã¢â¬Å"Odour of ChrysanthemumsÃ¢â¬ Lawrence showed the transformation of an ordinary housewife who is no more afraid to face the life even after she becomes a widow. Similarly, Joyce also upheld this feminist self-dependency approach by ending Ã¢â¬Å"EvelynÃ¢â¬ which can be interpreted that Evelyn no longer wants to get identified by his father or his to-be husband. It is also notable that not too many writers in the previous century showed the psychological development of women in their writing. But 20th century writers took a different approach and many of them actually tried to make a point that women are not just meant to cook, clean or bear babies, they can think as well. Morrison developed the character of Claudia in Ã¢â¬Å"The Bluest SkyÃ¢â¬ who tries to figure out not just how the life of another typical black woman rolls, she also tries to find out why they have to meet their Ã¢â¬Å"fateÃ¢â¬ . Apart from the above themes, which are mostly resulted due to political and philosophic movements taken place in that period, 20th century literatures also carries certain characters that is very distinct from the literature of the other periods. The writers tried to focus on individuals, rather than society, how individuals are suffering from identity crisis, how the modern civilization is creating void in human relationship and how the psychological forces are shaping up their behavior. Individualism is a very prominent feature in 20th century writing trend. If we look back at the fiction writers in the previous century or even earlier, we may notice that they highlighted mostly society and various social problems. Individuals were just representative of certain social segments. They do not have their own individual dimension. Social issues like slavery, racism etc. were focused but the individual lives that are affected by these forces, were hardly receiving any attention. But this trend changed in the 20th century, when writers started to focus on the individuals. If we take a look at all the discussed texts related to this paper, we will see every piece of writing address and prioritize the individual than the society. Whether be it Mrs. Elizabeth Bates, Evelyn or Tommy Wilhelm, they all represent individuals. In this connection it can be said many of the 20th century writers also wrote on the lives of the people of middle-class, which has emerged due to the indu strialization and rapid urbanization. 20th century literature also takes the great suffering of identity crisis of the individual from almost all level of the society. From housewife to tribal hero to modern stock broker, almost everyone is in quest of their identity. Mrs. Bates seeks the meaning of life as she gets tired of being a good wife and mother. Evelyn is not sure which course of life she should choose. Oknowo just knows about masculinity, not about anything else that should matter in life. Maureen cannot figure out who she really is despite her husband and children adapts to a new life. And Tommy, who has tried almost all the professions of the world, is still unsure what suits him. So, almost every piece of text we have read, we see individuals are confused about who they really are and looking for their true identity. Finally, the approach of the writers from the 20th century is more towards the psychic of human. We see enhanced analysis of ordinary individuals and how the social forces and factors are affecting their soul. Human alienation has been a dominant theme in the literature of this period. From the isolated death of Mr. Bates in Ã¢â¬Å"Odour of ChrysanthemumsÃ¢â¬ to Tommy WilhelmÃ¢â¬â¢s weeping over a strangerÃ¢â¬â¢s corpse in Ã¢â¬Å"Seize the DayÃ¢â¬ - they all represent how the modern men are getting more and more isolated, resulted by the complexities of life. Bellow was perhaps the master of all who portrayed a very realistic image of modern human through Tommy Wilhelm, who is termed very significantly as Ã¢â¬Å"alone in the crowdÃ¢â¬ . It is so true that today we have so many amenities around us to make our life comfortable but perhaps in doing so we are ignoring the human bond which has formed the relations and kept everyone tied together. If someone is asked, how you would define 20th century in a single sentence, one may answer that this is the century which has seen enormous progress in human civilization but has also been bleed severely due to all the wars. And literature from this period also reflects these forces that shaped up the human life and civilization.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
With due respect I express my indebt ness to the management of Diesel Locomotive Work for accommodating me as a summer trainee. I would like to express my gratitude with sense of reverence to Mr. Dinesh Singh (head, PERSONNEL and HR department). It would have been difficult to go through this project without their help. He not only helped me in collecting data but also supported me with their valuable knowledge and experience in the successful completion of this project. I would also thankful to almighty god for his grace and mercy to successfully complete this project. Amrita Mathur PREFACE In our two year degree program of M. B. A. of thereÃ¢â¬â¢s provision for doing summer training, after IInd semester. The essential purpose of this project is to given an exposure and detailed outlook to the student of practical concept, which they already studied research. For this purpose, I was assigned the project for the Ã¢â¬Å"RECRUITMENT AND SELECTIONÃ¢â¬ in Diesel Locomotive Work. We will write a custom essay sample on Recruitment and Selection in Dlw or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is a matter of great privilege to get training from Diesel Locomotive Work, one of the largest organisations of its kind. The project lasted for a period of six weeks: it was informative, interesting and inspiring. I hope this report will provide an experiment outlook to the dynamic functioning in the HR department in Diesel Locomotive Work. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The project titled Ã¢â¬Å"RECRUITMENT AND SELECTIONÃ¢â¬ Undertaken in Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW). A production unit of Indian Railways,Ã DLWÃ was set up in collaboration with Alco, USA, in 1961 and commenced manufacturing in 1963. It has so far supplied over 5,000 locomotives, mainly to Indian Railways but also including 342 locomotives for non-railwayÃ customersÃ such as power plants, port trusts and industrial users. The project report is about recruitment and selection process thatÃ¢â¬â¢s an important part of any organization. Which is considered as a necessary asset of a company? It gives a organizational structure of the company. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a methodology in which the particular organization works and how a new candidate could be recruited in such a way that he/she would be fitted for the right kind of career. For every organisation it is important to have a right person on a right job. Recruitment and Selection plays a vital role in this situation. Shortage of skills and the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers go about Recruiting and Selecting staff. It is recommended to carry out a strategic analysis of Recruitment and Selection procedure. There are two types of factors that affect the Recruitment of candidates for the company- * Internal factors. * External factors With reference to this context, this project is been prepared to put a light on Recruitment and Selection process. This project includes Meaning and Definition of Recruitment and Selection, Need and Purpose of Recruitment, Evaluation of Recruitment Process. Sources of Recruitment through which an organisation gets suitable application. Job Analysis, which gives an idea about the requirement of the job. Next is Selection process, which includes steps of Selection, Types of Test, Types of Interview, Common Interview Problems and their Solutions. The objective of selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. Selection process or activities typically follow a standard patter, beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with final employment decision. Recruitment and Selection are simultaneous process and are incomplete without each other. They are important components of the organisation and are different from each other. Since all the aspect needs practical example and explanation this project includes Recruitment and selection Process of Indian Railways. CONTENTS SR. NO. | TOPIC| PAGE NO. | 1. | Introduction| 1| 2. | Objective| 2| 3. | Scope Of The Study| 3| 4. | Research Methodology| 4-6| 5. | Company Profile| 7-12| 6. | Review Of Literature| 13-38| 7. | Data Analysis And Data Interpretation| 39-49| 8. Findings| 50| 9. | Conclusion| 51| 10. | Limitation Of Study| 52| 11. | Suggestions| 53| 12. | Bibliography| 54| 13. | Annexure| 55-57| INTRODUCTION Human Resource is a basic need of any work to be done. Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel management. Recruitment precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate. Every organisation needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and development of business activities. The project report is all about recruitment and selection process thatÃ¢â¬â¢s an important part of any organization. Recruitment highlights each applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s skills, talents and experience. Their selection involves developing a list of qualified candidates, defining a selection strategy, identifying qualified candidates, thoroughly evaluating qualified candidates and selecting the most qualified candidate. Ã¢â¬ËRight person for the right jobÃ¢â¬â¢ is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Every organisation should give attention to the selection of its manpower, especially its managers. Every business organisation/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates is essential. Human resource management in an organisation will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit. OJBECTIVE The objective of my study is to understand and critically analyzed the recruitment and selection procedure at Diesel Locomotive Works. 1. To study the recruitment and selection procedure followed in DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS (DLW). 2. To study the various sources of recruitment followed in DLW. . To learn what is the process of recruitment and selection that should be followed. 4. To critically analyze the functioning of recruitment and selection procedures. 5. To identify the probable area of improvement to make recruitment and selection procedure and more effective. 6. To know the managerial satisfaction level about recruitment and selection procedure. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The benefit of the study for the researcher is that it helped to gain knowledge and experience and also provided the opportunity to study and understand the prevalent recruitment and selection procedures. The key points of my research study are: 1) To study the facts about the diesel locomotive works as a group. 2) To understand and analyze various HR factors including recruitment and selection procedure at Diesel Locomotive Works. 3) To suggest any measures/ recommendations for the improvement of the recruitment procedures. REASERCH METHODOLOGY In everyday life human being has to face many problems viz. Social, economical, financial problems. These problems in life call for acceptable and effective solutions and for this purpose, research is required and a methodology applied for the solutions can be found out. Research was carried out at DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS to find out the Ã¢â¬Å"Recruitment and selection processÃ¢â¬ . The Research Research is a Ã¢â¬Å"careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Ã¢â¬ The project is a systematic presentation consisting of enunciated problem, formulated hypothesis, collected facts or data, analyzes facts and proposed conclusions in form of recommendations. Kind of Research The research done by Exploratory Research: This kind of research has the primary objective of development of insights into the problem. It studies the main area where the problem lies and also tries to evaluate some appropriate courses of action. Sample Design: A complete interaction and enumeration of all employees of Diesel Locomotive Work was not possible so a sample was chosen that consisted of 25-30 employees. DATA COLLECTION The data for the survey will be conducted from both primaries as well as secondary sources. Primary Data: Primary data was collected through training classes and survey method by distributing questionnaires to manager of personnel department and employees of recruitment and selection section of personnel department. The questionnaires were carefully designed by taking into account the parameters of my study. Secondary Data: Data was collected from books, magazines, web sites, going through the records of the organisation, etc. It is the data which has been collected by individual or someone else for the purpose of other than those of our particular research study. Or in other words we can say that secondary data is the data used previously for the analysis and the results are undertaken for the next process. RESEARCH DESIGN Research Design: A research design is the specification of methods and procedure for acquiring the information needed to structure or to solve problems. It is the overall operation pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which source, and be what procedures. Ã¢â¬Å"A research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedureÃ¢â¬ . Design decision happens 1. What is study about? 2. What is study being made? 3. Where will the study be carried out? 4. What type of data is required? . Where can the required data to be found? 6. What will be the sample design? 7. Technique of data collection? COMPANY PROFILE INDIAN RAILWAY Indias first train runs between MumbaiÃ andÃ Thane. The Indian railways are AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest railways system and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest railways system. Indian railways are owned and managed by th e central government. Indian RailwaysÃ (IR) is an iconic Indian organisation, owned and operated by theÃ Government of India through theÃ Ministry of Railways which is responsible for the maintenance and operation of the entire rail network in India and it enjoys total monopoly. RailwayÃ¢â¬ means a railway or any portion of a railway for the public carriage of passengers, animals or goods. Railways were first introduced to India in 1853. By 1947, the year ofÃ Indias independence, there were forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalized as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. It has the worlds fourth largest railway network after those of the United States,Ã RussiaÃ andÃ China. Rail transport is the conveyance of passengers and goods by means of wheeled vehicles running along railways or railroads. Rail transport is part of the logistics chain, which facilitates international trade and economic growth. INDIAN RAILWAY STRUCTURE Indian Railways is divided into several zones, which are further sub-divided intoÃ divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952 to sixteen in 2003 then to seventeen in 2010. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions. Each of the seventeen zones is headed by a General Manager (GM) who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of Divisional Railway Managers (DRM). Sr. No. | Name| Abbr. | Date Established| Headquarters| Divisions| 1. | Central| CR| 1951-11-05| Mumbai| Mumbai,Ã Bhusawal,Ã Pune,Ã Solapur,Ã Nagpur| 2. | East| ECR| 2002-10-01| Hajipur| Danapur,Ã Dhanbad,Ã Mughalsarai,Samastipur,Ã Sonpur| 3. | East Coast| ECoR| 2003-04-01| Bhubaneswar| Khurda Road,Ã Sambalpur,Ã Visakhapatnam| 4. | Eastern| ER| 1952-04| Kolkata| Howrah,Ã Sealdah,Ã Asansol,Ã Malda| 5. | North Central| NCR| 2003-04-01| Allahabad| Allahabad,Ã Agra,Ã Jhansi| 6. North Eastern| NER| 1952| Gorakhpur| Izzatnagar,Ã Lucknow,Ã Varanasi| 7. | North Western| NWR| 2002-10-01| Jaipur| Jaipur,Ã Ajmer,Ã Bikaner,Ã Jodhpur| 8. | Northeast Frontier| NFR| 1958-01-15| Guwahati| Alipurduar,Ã Katihar,Ã Rangia,Ã Lumding,Tinsukia| 9. | Northern| NR| 1952-04-14| Delhi| Delhi,Ã Ambala,Ã Firozpur,Ã Lucknow,Moradabad| 10. | South Central| SCR| 1966 -10-02| Secunderabad| Secunderabad,Ã Hyderabad,Ã Guntakal,Guntur,Ã Nanded,Ã Vijayawada| 11. | South East Central| SECR| 2003-04-01| Bilaspur| Bilaspur,Ã Raipur,Ã Nagpur| 12. | South Eastern| SER| 1955| Kolkata| Adra,Ã Chakradharpur,Ã Kharagpur,Ã Ranchi| 13. South Western| SWR| 2003-04-01| Hubli| Hubli,Ã Bangalore,Ã Mysore| 14. | Southern| SR| 1951-04-14| Chennai| Chennai,Ã Trichy,Ã Madurai,Ã Palakkad,Ã Salem,TrivandrumÃ | 15. | West Central| WCR| 2003-04-01| Jabalpur| Jabalpur,Ã Bhopal,Ã Kota| 16. | Western| WR| 1951-11-05| Mumbai| Mumbai Central,Ã Ratlam, Rajkot,Ã Ahmedabad ,Ã Bhavnagar,Ã Vadodara| Production Units Six production units are headed by a General Manager, who also reports directly to the Railway Board. The six Production Units are:- Sl. No| Name| Abbr. | Year Established| Location| Main products| 1. Golden Rock Locomotive Workshops| GOC| 1928| Trichy| Diesel-electric Locomotives| 2. | Chittaranjan Locomotive Works| CLW| 1947| ChittaranjanÃ ,Asansol| Electric Locomotives| 3. | Diesel Locomotive Works| DLW| 1961| Varanasi| Diesel Locomotives| 4. | Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works| DMW| 1981| Patiala| Diesel-electric Locomotives| 5. | Integral Coach Factory| ICF| 1952| Chennai| Passenger coaches| 6. | Rail Coach Factory| RCF| 1986| Kapurthala| Passenger coaches| 7. | Rail Wheel Factory| RWF| 1984| Bangalore| Railway wheels and axles| 8. | Rail Wheel Factory| RWF| 2011| Chhapra| Railway wheels and axles| Diesel Locomotive WorksÃ (DLW) TheÃ Diesel Locomotive WorksÃ (DLW) inÃ Varanasi,Ã India, is a production unit owned byÃ Railways, that manufactures diesel-electricÃ locomotivesÃ and its spare parts. It is the largest diesel-electric locomotive manufacturer in India. Healthy growth of railways is essential for IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s social, regional, economic, industrial and agricultural development. The main vision of Diesel Locomotive Works To be a world class manufacturer of Diesel electric locomotives. Ã Organizational Structure Of DLW General Manager (GM) CMO CME COS FA amp; CAO CMEPCMD Depty CPO/HQ Depty CPO/General SPO APO/HQ APO/Staff | Nature of workThe role changes depending on where an officer is placed in the organization Ã¢â¬â in the division (operational level), the zone (tactical level), or the railway board (strategic level). The following are the different roles played in railways:Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢ The commercial division: This division handles all commercial responsibilities like ticket checking, catering, administration and management of stations, reservation, announcements on the platforms, etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The operations division: This division deals with controlling movement of trains. Keeping a check on incoming and outgoing trains, detachment or attachment of wagons, etc. , are the responsibilities of this division. Ã¢â¬ ¢ India Railway Accounts Service: This branch of the Railway Services is engaged in handling the accounting and finance operations of the Indian Railways. At this post, the officer carries the overall responsibility for accounts for the whole zone. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Indian Railway Personnel Service: As the name indicates, officers in this division handle all matters related to the personnel section like selection, promotions, training, welfare activities, transfers, increments, disciplinary actions and the like. Railway Protection Service/ Railway Protection Force: This branch of the Indian Railway Services is entrusted with the task of maintenance of law and order on trains and on premises owned and used by the Indian Railways. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Railway Engineering Services: This is the technical side of the Railway Services and is engaged in activities like const ruction and planning of railway tracks, bridges and buildings. There are branches in this division like the Indian Railway Service of Electrical Engineers and the Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers. Benefits To The EmployeesGroup A, B C and D title will be issued to those railway servants. There are both gazetted and non gazetted officers in these groups. Different railway passes are allowed to the employees according to the group and positions given to them. Some of them are Special passes, residential passes, widow passes, post retirement complimentary pass, school pass, pass on privilege account, duty pass etc. Staff Welfare| DLW undertakes a Varity of welfare activities for its over 6000 personnel. Important among these are:Education Facilities: DLW administration runs 4 schools providing Primary and Secondary Education to more than 2600 students. DLW WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Welfare Organization also runs a primary school Bal Niketan. DLW township also possesses 1 Post Graduate GirlÃ¢â¬â¢s College, 2 Central Schools, and 1 Senior Secondary School. Medical Facilities:105 bedded well-equipped Railway Hospital, a Health Unit and a First-Aid post in workshop provide comprehensive health care to around 20,000 Railway family members. A Homeopathic and an Ayurvedic dispensary are also available. Railway Quarters:A total of 3641 staff quarters are provided to the DLW employees. The Railway colony is well maintained and green, providing excellent pollution free environment. Compassionate Appointments:Families of deceased employees are helped by the way of compassionate appointment to the wards. Institute/Community Centre etc. :For various social needs of the staff 1 Community Hall, 2 Institutes, 2 Barat Ghars, 1 Kalyan Kendra, 1 Rangshala and 1 Officers Club are functioning on the premises. Cinema Club:For recreation of staff a Cinema Hall of around 700 capacities is functioning since 1967 in DLW. Sports amp; Game:All kinds of facilities for various games like Cricket, Hockey, Basketball, Badminton, Volley-ball, Football, Table Tennis, Gymnasium, Athletics, Swimming, Golf, and Rifle Shooting have been provided for the staff. | REVIEW OF LITERATURE Human Resource plays a crucial role in the development process of the modern. Human resource management is the management of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skill, knowledge abilities, talent, aptitude, creativity, ability etc. different terms are used for denoting Human Resource Management. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel management. Recruitment precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate. RECRUITMENT Recruitment is Ã¢â¬Å"hiringÃ¢â¬ of employees from outside. Recruitment has been regarded as the most important function of the HR department. Ã¢â¬ËRight person for the right jobÃ¢â¬â¢ is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Every business organisation/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates is essential. Need For Recruitment: The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation: 1. Vacancies due to promotions, transfer, retirement, termination, permanent disability, death and labour turnover. 2. Creation of new vacancies due to the growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job specification. Purpose And Importance Of Recruitment: 1. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities. . Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. 3. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company, and eventually decided whether they wish to work for it. Sources Of Recruit ment The sources of recruitment in Diesel Locomotive Work can be broadly categorized into internal and external sources- I. Internal Recruitment Ã¢â¬â Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from within the company. The various internal sources include 1) Promotion. 2) Transfers. 3) Compassionate Ground. 4) Sports Quota. 5) Cultural Quota. 6) Physical Handicapped Quota. II. External Recruitment Ã¢â¬â External recruitment seeks applicants for positions from sources outside the company. The various external sources include 1) Government Placement Agencies: a) UPSC(Union Public Service Commission) b) RRB/RRC(Railway Recruitment Board/Railway Recruitment Control) SELECTION Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the appropriate qualification and competency to do the job. It is a negative process and involves the elimination of candidates who do not have the required skills and qualification for the job proposed. The objective of selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. It is the system of function and device adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s specifications are matched with the job specifications and recruitment or not. The difference between recruitment and selection: * Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to apply for a job and Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants. * Recruitment is the positive function in which interested candidates are encouraged to submit application and Selection is a negative function in which unsuitable candidates are eliminated and the best one is selected. Selection Test: Different types of tests may be administered, depending on the job and the company. Generally, tests are used to determine the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s ability, aptitude, intelligence, general knowledge, and medical test. .Selection Decision: The final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pass the tests, interviews and reference checks. The view of the line manager will be generally considered in the final selection because it is he/she who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. The HR manager plays a crucial role in the final selection. Physical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is, often, contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. There are several objectives behind a physical test: 1. Physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease. 2. The test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work. 3. The physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain physical capabilities, which differentiate successful and less successful employees. . Medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s property. 5. An examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the employee was hired. Job Offer: After the physical examinat ion the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. Job offer is made through a letter of appointed. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. The appointee must be given reasonable time for reporting. Again, a new job may require movement to another city, which means considerable preparation, and movement of property. The company may also want the individual to delay the date of reporting on duty. If the new employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s first job upon joining the company is to go on company until perhaps a week before such training begins. Naturally, this practice cannot be abused, especially if the individual is unemployed and does not have sufficient finances. Their applicants may be preserved for future use, if any. It needs no emphasis that the applications of selected candidates must also be preserved for the future references. Contract Of Employment: After the job offer has bee made and candidates accept the offer, certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. One such document is the attestation form. This form contains vital details about the candidate, which are authenticated and attested by him/her. Attestation form will be a valid record for the future reference. There is also a need for reparing a contract of employment. The basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job, but the following checklist sets out the typical headings: 1. Job title. 2. Duties, including a parse such as Ã¢â¬Å"The employee will perform such duties and will be responsible to such a person, as the company may from time to time directÃ¢â¬ . 3. Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service. 4. Rate of pay, allowance, overtime and shift rates, method of payments. 5. Hours of work including lunch break and overtime and shift arrangements. 6. Holiday arrangements: a) Paid holidays per year. b) Calculation of holiday pay. c) Qualifying period. d) Accrual of holidays and holiday pay. e) Details of holiday year. f) Dates when holidays can be taken. g) Maximum holiday that can be take at any one time. h) Carry over of holiday entitlement. i) Public holidays. 7. Length of notice due to and from employee. 8. Grievances procedure (or reference to it). 9. Disciplinary procedure (or any reference to it). 10. Work rules (or any reference to them). EmployerÃ¢â¬â¢s right to vary terms of the contract subject to proper notification being given. Alternatively called employment agreements or simply bonds, contracts of employment serve many useful purposes. The drawback with the contracts is that it is almost to enforce them. A determined employee is bound to leave the organisation, contract or no contract. Recruitment And Selection In Diesel Locomotive Work (DLW) Indian railway is considered as the biggest job provider in world. The Indian railway network is divided into 17 different zones geographically. Here I am giving you detailed information about division of railway jobs, and which job profile will be given in which departments through which exam. Staff are classified into gazetted (Group A and B) and non-gazetted (Group C and D) employees. The recruitment of Group A gazetted employees is carried out by theÃ Union Public Service Commission through exams conducted by it. The recruitment to Group C and D employees on the Indian Railways is done through 19 Railway Recruitment Boards which are controlled by the Railway Recruitment Control Board (RRC). Vacancies in Indian Railways are filled either by recruitment by Recruitment agencies like UPSC or RRB or by promotion from serving candidates. The railway recruitment board divides all the jobs into four major categories as given below: 1. Group A: Group A recruitments are filled by UPSC by All India Competitive examinations. 2. Group B: Group B posts are normally filled by promotion from serving Group C candidates. 3. Group C: Group C recruitment are made by Railway Recruitment Board (RRB). 4. Group D: Group D posts are filled at the divisional level. The employees who are selected under group A and group B are Gazette officers. General Conditions for Recruitment The recruitment rules may provide for- 1. Qualifications, age and the scales of pay applicable for the various posts in the service and important conditions of service, like leave, pension, non-contributory Provident Fund benefits, etcÃ . 2. No male candidate who has more than one wife living or no female candidate who has married a person having already a wife living shall be eligible for appointment to a railway service, unless the competent authority exempts the candidate from the operation of this rule. . Proportion of vacancies to be filled by direct recruitment and promotion of railway servants from subordinate services. 4. In the case of probationers, consequences of failure to pass prescribed departmental examinations, if any, e. g. loss of appointment, stoppage of increments etc. 5. Passing obligatory language examination whenever prescribed in the recruitment regulations for each service in Group Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢. Recruitment of Group A services Recruitment of Group A Officers are made through: 1. Open competitive examination held by UPSC. . Promotion of Officers from Group B. 3. Appointment of Special Class Apprentices by UPSC. 1) Through UPSC recruits the candidate can be selected in railways by clearing one of the following three exams. a) Civil Services Examination: This exam is recruiting candidates for the post of traffic department, accounts departments and protection force department. * Indian Railway Traffic Service (IRTS). * Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS). * Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS). * Railway Protection Force ) Enginnering Services Examination for: This exam select candidate for the post of mechanical engineers, store engineers, signal engineers and electrical engineers. * Indian Railway Service of Engineers (IRSE). * Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers (IRSME). * Indian Railway Service of Ele ctrical Engineers (IRSEE). * Indian Railway Service of Signal Engineers (IRSEE). * Indian Railway Stores Service (IRSS). a) Medical Services Examination for: Through this exam the candidates are selected for medical department of Indian railways. Indian Railway Medical Service (IRMS). 2) Promotion of Officers from Group BÃ¢â¬â¢ * Promotion from Group B to Group A (Junior Scale). 1. Appointments to the posts in the junior scale shall be made by selection on merit from amongst Group B officers of the departments concerned with not less than 3 years of non-fortuitous service in the grade. 2. If the quota reserved for Group B Officers for promotion to junior scale is not fully utilised, the remaining vacancies may be filled by Government in accordance with the recruitment rules and in consultation with the UPSC. . The Departmental Promotion Committee for this purpose shall consist of a representative of the Union Public Service Commission as Chairman and two representatives of the Min istry of Railways as Members. * Promotion from junior scale to senior scale. Appointment to the posts in the senior scale shall be made by promotion in the order of seniority, subject to rejection of the unfit, of officers with ordinarily not less than 4 years service in the junior scale. * Promotion from senior scale to higher grade posts. 1. Promotions to the Administrative Grade are dependent on the occurrence of vacancies in the sanctioned establishment and are made wholly by selection; mere seniority does not confer any claim for such promotion. 2. Appointments to the posts in the Junior Administrative Grade shall be made by selection on merit from amongst the officers ordinarily with not less than 5 years service in the senior scale. 3. The departmental Promotion Committee for purposesÃ of promotion from Senior Scale and above to higher grade posts shall consist of Chairman, Railway Board, Financial Commissioner Railways and three other Members of the Railway Board. ) Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) Exam * Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducts every year entrance exam for selecting Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) to Indian Railways. * This program was started in 1927. Training * The selected candidates undergo a four-year rigorous training programme in Mechanical Engineering, Indian Railw ays Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jamalpur. * IRIMEE has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi for the training. Degree Awarded * SCRAs get a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Mechanical Engineering after successful completion of four years of training. This degree is recognised by the All India Council for Technical Education. Career * On successful completion of the course they are posted as Assistant Mechanical Engineer (AME) in Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers. * As they are posted directly as Group A officer they rapidly goes higher up in the ladder to become senior administrators of Indian Railways. Stipend and other Benefits Not only that SCRA Apprentices are trained at Railways expense, they are paid stipend at the following rates along with DA applicable: Year| Existing rate of stipend per month| Stipend per month| First| Rs. 4000| Rs. 9100| Second| Rs. 4000| Rs. 9100| Third| Rs. 4200| Rs. 9400| Fourth [First six months]| Rs. 4200| Rs. 9400| [Last six months]| Rs. 4400| Rs. 9700| * Special Class Apprentice moving from one headquarter to another in connection with their tr aining will be eligible for daily allowance for the period covered by the journey. Leave: Special Class Railway Apprentices may be granted leave on full stipend for a period not exceeding one month in any year of apprenticeship. * Medical facilities: Special Class Apprentices shall be entitled to free medical attendance and treatment at railway hospitals and dispensaries on the same scale as applicable to railway servants. * Travelling facilities: 2 sets of Pass and 6 sets of Privilege Ticket Orders (PTO) are admissible per year valid from anywhere to anywhere on Indian Railways. SCRA Exam * SCRA exam is conducted by UPSC and is one of the toughest exams in the country as each year there are only around 10 vacancies. For Admission to the examination a candidate must have passed in the first or second division, the Intermediate or an equivalent examination of a university or board approved by the Government of India with Mathematics and at least one of the subjects Physics and Chemis try as subjects of the examination. Scheme of Exam Paper| Subject| Time| Maximum Ã Marks| Part IPaper-I| General Ability Test (English, General Knowledge and Psychological Test)| 2 hours| 200| Paper-II| Physical Sciences (Physics and Chemistry)| 2 hours| 200| Paper-III| Mathematics| 2 hours| 200| Total| 6 hours| 600| Part II| Personality Test carrying a maximum of 200 marks in respect of only those candidates who are declared qualified on the results of written examination. | Selection to Group B Services Selected from serving Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ employees by General Manager. Selection Board consists of 4 HODs including CPO and HOD of the department concerned. 70% vacancies are filled through a process of selection primarily based on seniority and 30% through a selection test known as Limited Department Competitive Examination (LDCE). Salient features of LDCE and Selection are given below: | Selection| LDCE| Eligible Grade| GP 4200| GP 4200| Service requirements| Min 3 years in the 4200| Min 5 years in the 4200| Who can appear the selection| Only those who are called as per seniority and vacancy available| All employees in concerned department who fulfill the above condition| Method of selection| Primarily seniority. Written test and viva-voce has to be passed. | Purely on the basis of written test and viva-voce(standard of written exam higher than that for Selection)| SC/ST Reservation| Applicable| Applicable| Seniority| Employees empanelled through selection will rank above those through LDCE| 70% Selection * Number of vacancies existing and anticipated for the next 2 years are taken into consideration. Delayed Selection If a selection procedure is delayed by more than one year then it will be conducted as per the procedure for Delayed selection as follows: * Number of vacancies for each of the selection should be assessed separately. * Field of consideration of eligible employees should be assessed separately starting from earliest selection. * Separate panel for each selection. Test * The test includes both written and viva in which marks for professional ability, record of marks, personality etc. are allotted. The panel is prepared with those getting 80% and above as outstanding and 60% to 79% as others. * In selection/LDCE the total marks secured by all the candidates who had appeared for viva-voce after qualifying in the written examination and the marks secured in written test in the case of remaining candidates may be notified after finalization of Group B Panel. Limited Departmental Competitive Examination (LDCE) To fill up 30% of vacancies in Group Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ vacancies in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Signal amp; Telecommunications, Transportation and Commercial Department, Stores and Accounts. * Reservation of SC/ST as per extant orders. * The panel will be valid for the same length of time as the panel of selection. * Employees empanelled through 70% selection will rank above those through LDCE. Scheme of Examination * A written exam of a substantially higher standard than associated with normal selection and aÃ viva-voce. * Minimum pass marks are 60%. Names will be in order of merit on the basis of total marks. In selection/LDCE the total marks secured by all the candidates who had appeared for viva-voce after qualifying in the written examination and the marks secured in written test in the case of remaining candidates may be notified after finalisation of Group B Panel. Promotion to Railway Services, Group B Promotions to Group B posts shall be made by the General Managers except in the Security Department provided that such promotions are made in the strict order of placement on the panel recommended by the Selection Board; if any supersession of that order is involved, the matter should be referred to the Railway Ministry. The posts of Assistant Accounts Officers shall ordinarily be filled by selection from Group C railway servants who have passed the departmental examination qualifying for promotion as Section Officer (Accounts), Inspector of Stores Accounts/Inspector of Station Accounts or are exempted from passing that examination. Selection of APOs For selection to the post of Assistant Personnel Officers, the Recruitment Board has restricted the field of eligibility to the following staff only: Eligibility * Staff of Hindi Branch are not eligible. * Minimum 3 years in the Grade Pay Rs. 200 in Pay Band PB2 (9300-34800) (including services in the corresponding pre-revised grades). Pre-Selection Training The railways board has decided that pre-selection training should be given to the staff appearing for selection/ L. DC. E. for promotion from Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ to Group Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ posts to enable them to improve their performance. It has also been decided that as in case of S. C/S. T. cand idates, pre-selection coaching classes should be arranged for the candidates belonging to general category and this coaching should be treated as mandatory. Medical Fitness: Employees selected for promotion to Group Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ service should be fit in all espects, including physical fitness, for the duties assigned to the particular category of posts to which the promotion is made. The Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ employees qualifying in the selection for promotion to Group Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ posts but not passing the prescribed medical standard should not be promoted to Group Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢. Recruitment to Group C Services The General Manager of Indian Railways Have full powers to make with regard in Railway servants Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ and Group Ã¢â¬â¢DÃ¢â¬â¢ under their control, provided they are not inconsistent with any rule made by the President or the Ministry of Railways. The power, do not authorize the General Manager to recruit persons without agency of the Railway Recruitment Boards (RRB) unless the Railway Board have issued special authorization. The recruitment to fill Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ posts on Indian Railways shall be made through: 1. Direct recruitment through RRB established at various places on Indian Railways. 2. By promotion of Group Ã¢â¬ËDÃ¢â¬â¢ service. 3. Direct recruitment of departments of crippled de-categorized or incapacitated employees retired on medical ground. 4. Direct recruitment of children of the employees who died while in service, on compassionate ground. . Direct recruitment through of handicapped persons. 6. Direct recruitment against the quota of sportsmen, cultural, scouts and guides. 7. Recruitment against specified categories such as teachers for Railway Schools and skilled or Artisen staff. Recruitment to Group C Services(By RBBs) * Made through Railway Recruitment Boards (RRB). * Panel formed by RRB after selection is forwarded to the Zonal Railway concerned. * The panel is valid for a year which can be extended by CPO. * Candidates have to pass the prescribed medical examination. * All appointments are made on probation for two year. For trainees/apprentices appointed to a working post after conclusion of their prescribed training. Probation period commences on date of such appointment. * It is obligatory for all trainees to pass a simple test in Hindi. The committee for conducting interviews for recruitment to Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ post on the Railways/Production Units/RRBs will have minimum 3 members and must include officers representing SC/ST, minority and OBC Communities. The composition of the committee shall be- 1. Chairman RRB or Member Secretary RRB as chairman of the interview Committee. 2. Serving Railway officer of JA grade, including an officer of Department for which the recruitment is being made in case of difficulty in finding OBC officer in JA Grade a Sr. Scale OBC officer may be nominated in the committee. The officer so nominated will never the less be an equal member of the committee. No member should be direct subordinate to any officer member of the committee. The Candidate selected is placed on selection list in order of merit. The Recruitment Board sends the names of selected candidates along with their original application to the Railway concerned. Based on call letters send by Railways, the candidates on reporting for duty shall have to pass the medical examinations prescribed for each category. Recruitment to Group C Services (Selection) * Staff having 3 years of service can appear for selection test. * Successful candidates shall be placed in the order of merit except those who have obtained more than 80%Ã Ã of marks. Jurisdiction of Railway recruitment boards (RRB) on various Zones/Divisions/Workshops are as follow: Ã Contact Details of Railway Recruitment Boards (RRB) 1) RRB Ahmedabad Website:Ã www. rrbahmedabad. gov. in/ Railway Recruitment Board, Ahmedabad. st Floor, Meter Guage Building, Railway Station, Kalupur,, Ahmedabad, Gujarat Pin: 380 002, Contact:Ã [emailprotected] in 2) RRB Ajmer Website:Ã www. rrbajmer. org Railway Recruitment Board, Nehru Marg, Near Ambedkar Circle,Ajmer Ã¢â¬â 305001 Contact:Ã [emailprotected] org 3) RRB Allahabad Website:Ã www. rrbald. nic. in Railway Recruitment Board Op posite to G. M. /NCR Building Near Subedarganj Railway Hospital Subedarganj Allahabad Ã¢â¬â 211 033. Contact:Ã [emailprotected] co. in 4) RRB Bangalore Website:Ã www. rrbbnc. gov. in Railway Recruitment Board Bangalore 18, Millers Road, Bangalore Ã¢â¬â 560046. Contact:Ã [emailprotected] om 5) RRB Bilaspur Website:Ã www. rrbbilaspur. gov. in Railway Recruitment Board, GM/SECRÃ¢â¬â¢s Office Complex Bilaspur (C. G) Pin: 495 004 Contact:Ã [emailprotected] com 6) RRB Bhopal Website:Ã www. rrbbpl. nic. in Railway Recruitment Board, Bhopal East Railway Colony, Bhopal Ã¢â¬â 462010 E-mail-Ã [emailprotected] in 7) RRB Bhubaneswar Website:Ã www. rrbbbs. gov. in D-79/80, Rail Vihar , B. D. A. Rental Colony, Chandrasekharpur , Bhubaneswar, Pin -751023,Orissa Contact:Ã [emailprotected] gov. in 8) RRB Chandigarh Website:Ã www. rrbcdg. org SCO 34, IInd Floor, Madhya Marg, Sector Ã¢â¬â 7-C Chandigarh Contact:Ã [emailprotected] o. in 9) RRB Chennai Website:Ã www. rrbchennai. net 5, Dr. P. V. Cherian Crescent Road, Egmore, Chennai Ã¢â¬â 600 008 Contact:Ã [emailprotected] railnet. gov. in 10) RRB Gorakhpur Website:Ã www. rrbgkp. gov. in Railway Station Road, Gorakhpur Ã¢â¬â 273012 Contact:Ã [emailprotected] co. in 11) RRB Guwahati Website:Ã rrbguwahati. gov. in Station Road, Guwahati Contact:Ã [emailprotected] in Online application facility is available in RRB Guwahati 12) RRB Jammu Website:Ã www. rrbjammu. nic. in Railway Colony (West), Jammu-180012 Contact:Ã [emailprotected] co. in 13) RRB Kolkata Website:Ã www. rrbkolkata. org Metro Railway A. V. Complex,Chitpur, Opp. To R. G. Kar Medical College amp; Hospital, R. G. Kar Road, Kolkata-700 037 Contact:Ã [emailprotected] net 14) RRB Malda Website:Ã www. rrbmalda. gov. in Kalibari Railway Colony, P. O Jhaljhalia,Malda Ã¢â¬â 732102, (West Bengal) Contact:Ã [emailprotected] in 15) RRB Mumbai Website:Ã www. rrbmumbai. gov. in Railway Divisional office compound,Mumbai Central, (E), Mumbai Ã¢â¬â 400 202, Maharashtra Contact:Ã [emailprotected] co. in 16) RRB Muzaffarpur Website :Ã rrbmuzaffarpur. bih. nic. in LichiÃ Bagan,Ã Maripur,Muzaffarpur-842001 [emailprotected] in 17) RRB Patna Website:Ã www. rrbpatna. gov. in Railway Recruitment Board, Mahendrughat, Patna Ã¢â¬â 800 004. , Bihar Contact:Ã [emailprotected] in Online application facility is available. 18) RRB Ranchi Website:Ã www. rrbranchi. org Railway Offices Complex,Chutia, Ranchi-834027, Jharkhand Contact:Ã sec[emailprotected] org 19) RRB Secunderabad Website:Ã www. rrbsec. org Railway Recruitment Board Secunderabad South Lallaguda, Andhra PradeshÃ¢â¬â 500017 Contact:Ã [emailprotected] com 20) RRBÃ Siliguri Website :Ã rrbsiliguri. org Subhashpally,Siliguri,District-Darjeeling,PIN-734001,(West Bengal) E-mail:Ã [emailprotected] org Online application facility is available. 1) RRB Thiruvananthapuram Website:Ã www. rrbthiruvananthapuram. net Thampanoor, Thiruvananthapuram Ã¢â¬â 695 001 Contact: [emailprotected] Recruitment to Group Ã¢â¬ËDÃ¢â¬â¢ Service: Recruitment to all Group D posts will henceforth will be done by zonal railways directly Board guidelines for recruitment to group d posts. Guidelines for recru itment of group D staff by railway administration 1. Recruitment unit Requirement of all divisions/workshops/production units and other organisation falling within the territorial jurisdiction of the zonal railway will be clubbed together for the recruitment. . Periodicity of recruitment * Recruitment shall be done at intervals of one or two years. * Vacancies shall be counted as those existing in 1st January or 1st July of the year of recruitment plus those anticipated over the next one or two year. 3. Eligibility criteria * The educational qualification for recruitment to all posts in group D in the railways shall be class 8th passed. * The age limits for recruitment shall be as per extant instruction, with relaxation for specified categories as admissible under specific orders issued by Ministry of RailwayÃ¢â¬â¢s from time to time. How to apply Candidate shall apply on plain paper, as per format indicated in the employment notice, directly to the deputy chief personnel officer. Fees may be charged @ Rs. 40 per candidate. However, no fee is to be charged from the candidates belonging to SC/ST categories. In his/her application, the candidate should mention the recruitment unit and posts applied for. Candidates should be asked to give option (maximum three) in order of preference for the division/workshops/production units/other organisation etc.. , within the territorial jurisdiction of the zone. If a combined examination is being held for more than one category of group d post, then the candidate should specify his preference for the posts also. No change of options shall be permitted at any stage subsequently. Written Exam Recruitment boards are conducting Written Exam first. 1. There will be total 150 multiple choice questions in the written exam. 2. The questions will be asked of 10th class level from these topics: * General Knowledge. * General Maths. * General Reasoning. * General Science. 3. After passing in Written Exam candidates have to face Physical Efficiency test, mainly Race of 1500 meter. Selection procedure The selection shall consist of a written test followed by physical efficiency test and medical examination. Medical Examination of Candidates for appointment to Non-Gazetted Railway services * Medical examination includes- (i) General physical examination, and (ii) Vision tests * Non-Gazetted Railway services are divided into different broad groups and classes like Group A(A-1,A-2,A-3), Group B(B-1, B-2), Group C(C-1, C-2). * Spectacles:Ã No glasses are to be permittedÃ for categories A-1 and A-2 and for Railway Protection Force staff where their medical category is B-1. Candidates in classes A-1, A-2, A-3 and B-1 on being medically examined shall be tested for color perception with the prescribed apparatus and recommended methods of examination. * For both Candidates and employees contact lenses shall not be permitted in category A and B. * CandidatesÃ of classes A-1, A-2, A-3 and B-1 will be examined with regard to their vision in diminished light. * Cand idatesÃ class A-1 will be examined to ascertain that the fields ofÃ vision are not seriously restricted. * Candidates in Classes A-1, A-2, A-3, B-1 and B-2 will be tested for the presence ofÃ binocular vision, i. . , peripheral fusion, depth perception and stereoscopic vision. * Candidates from A1 to B-1 categories may be examined in glaring light by providingÃ a 200 Watts Bulb 90 cm. Response toÃ glare and recovery time should be noted by examining the candidates. Fundus / Full Ophthalmology Examination: Compulsory in the following circumstances, 1. For all candidates in A-1. 2. For categories C-1 and C-2 when the power of lenses exceeds 4 D, the candidate should beÃ examined by an Ophthalmologist to exclude progressive eye disease. General Physical Examination: Candidate must be in good mental and bodily health and free from any defect likely to interfere with the effective performance of the duties of his appointment. Following are examined: * Measurement of height, weight and chest girth will be recorded. * The condition of heart and lungs. * The condition of teeth and gums (well filled teeth will be considered as sound). * Whether there is any evidence of abdominal disease. * Whether there is any hernia or tendency to hernia. * Whether there is free movement of the joints. Whether hearing in each ear is good and whether there is any disease of the ear. * Whether there is any speech defect. * Whether there is any communicable disease. * Hearing:Ã In the examination of hearing of the candidate/serving employee, the speaking voice testÃ will be employed. The use of hearing aid should not be permitted for candidates in categories A and B. * Speech:Ã Stammering is not to be considered a serious defect dis qualifying a candidate in clericalÃ duties, especially such of them as do not have to come in direct contact with the public. Head injuries:- Candidates in categories A-1, A-2 and A-3, when they come up for medical examination or re-examination, should give a declaration if they had a head injury earlier and if so, a history of the case, even though fully cured at the time of declaration. In the case of persons with past history of loss of memory, a full neurological examination and a fitness certificate from a neurologist would be required. A candidate who has one of the following will be rejected irrespective of the category of employment: Appeal Normally, candidate has no right of appeal , but if proof is produced as regards to the possibility of error of judgment in the decision of the examining medical authority, a re-examination will be ordered. Such evidence should be submitted within one month of the date of communication. * A medical certificate produced by candidate as e vidence about possibility of error of judgment should contain a note by the medical practitioner concerned that he is aware of the fact that the candidate has already been declared unfit by Railway medical authority. Medical classification of different categories of Railway staff A1| * Loco Pilot/ Asst. Loco Pilot * Motorman| A2| * Guards/Asstt. Guard/Pilot guard * ASM, Station Master, Station Supt. * Traffic Apprentices| A3| * Loco Inspector * JE/SE Camp;W * JE/SE Loco * JE/SE Works * JE/SE Signal amp; Telecommunication * Traffic Inspector * Trolleymen * Gatekeeper * YM/AYM, Trains Clerk * Bridge Inspectors, JE/SE Bridges| B1| * Gang men / Trackman * Permanent way khalasis * ESM/Tech Signal * Train Examination staff * RPF staff| B2| * Ticket checking staff| C1| * Section Controller * Booking Clerk * Station Clerk * Commercial Inspector * Telephone operator| C2| * Others| Standards Description for different Medical classification * A-1Ã Physically fit in all respects. Visual Standards Ã¢â¬âDistance Vision: 6/6,6/6 without glasses. Near Vision: Sn: 0. 6,0. 6 without glasses (must clear fogging test) and must pass test for Colour Vision, Binocular Vision, Field of Vision amp; Night Vision. * A-2Ã Physically fit in all respects. Visual StandardsÃ¢â¬âDistance vision: 6/9,6/9 without glasses. Near Vision: Sn: 0. 6, 0. 6 without glasses and must pass test for Colour Vision, Binocular Vision, Field of Vision amp; Night Vision. * A-3Ã Physically fit in all respects. Visual StandardsÃ¢â¬âDistance Vision: 6/9,6/9 with or without glasses (power of lenses not to exceed 2D). Near Vision: Sn: 0. 6, 0. 6 with or without glasses and must pass test for Colour Vision, Binocular Vision, Field of Vision amp; Night Vision. * B-1Ã Physically fit in all respects. Visual Standards Ã¢â¬â Distance Vision: 6/9,6/12 with or without glasses (power of lenses not to exceed 4D). Near Vision: Sn: 0. 6, 0. 6 with or without glasses when reading or close work is required and must pass test for Colour Vision, Binocular Vision, Field of Vision amp; Night Vision. * B-2Ã Physically fit in all respects. Visual Standards Ã¢â¬â Distance Vision: 6/9,6/12 with or without glasses (power not to exceed 4D). Near Vision: Sn: 0. 6, 0. 6 with or without glasses when reading or close work is required and must pass test for Field of Vision. * C-1Ã Physically fit in all respects. Visual Standards Ã¢â¬â Distance Vision: 6/12, 6/18 with or without glasses. Near Vision: Sn: 0. 6, 0. 6 with or without glasses when reading or close work is required. * C-2Ã Physically fit in all respects. Visual Standards Ã¢â¬â Distance Vision: 6/12, Nil with or without glasses. Near Vision, Sn: 0. 6 combined with or without glasses when reading or close work is required. Verification of Character and antecedents of Railway employees on appointment through RRB: * Before making anÃ appointment to the Railways it is the responsibility of the appointing authority to satisfy itself about the identity and suitability of the candidate according to the prescribed criteria. * Detailed verification of character and antecedents would be applicable in case of: 1) Group Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ Posts. 2) Group Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢ posts. 3) Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËDÃ¢â¬â¢ posts of all those offices in which detailed verification is considered particularly necessary in the interest of security by the Administrative Ministry of office. ) Cases in which simple verification cannot be done because of the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to produce a certificate of character. * Attestation form in respect of the categories where detailed investigation is necessary attestation form has to be referred to District Magistrate * Simple verification would be applicable to appo intments to all other posts viz: a) Posts of LDCE and posts of equivalent grade and all Group Ã¢â¬ËDÃ¢â¬â¢ posts in the Government of India Secretariat and its attached offices. b) Group Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ amp; Ã¢â¬ËDÃ¢â¬â¢ posts under the Government of India in subordinate offices. Exception can be made to the general procedure and detailed verification may be done for some posts/services/departments. * All appointing authorities should clearly indicate at the top of the attestation forms the type of verification required to be done, i. e. , Detailed Verification, Record Check or Simple Verification. DATA ANALYSIS AND DATA INTERPRETATION Data Interpretation Questionnaire was prepared for the purpose of getting feedback from the employees and APOs regarding Ã¢â¬Å"Recruitment and Selection ProcedureÃ¢â¬ of their company. 5 employees and selected from different department and were distributed the questionnaire from the purpose of the study. Analysis of Data The analysis of t he data is done as per the survey finding. The data is represented by graphically in percentage. The percentage of the people opinion were analyzed and expressed in the form of pie-charts. QUESTION: What are the sources for recruitment and selection? S. NO. | OPINION| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1. | Internal| 5| 20| 2. | External| 8| 32| 3. | Both| 12| 48| About 48% of the employees said that they prefer both internal as well as external source for recruitment and selection. 20% of the employees said that they prefer internal source for recruitment and selection. 32% of the employees said that they prefer external source for recruitment and selection. QUESTION: Which method do you mostly prefer for recruitment and selection preferred way of recruitment? S. NO. | OPINION| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1. | Direct| 5| 20| 2. | Indirect| 2| 8| 3. | Third Party| 18| 72| About 20% of the employees said that they prefer direct recruitment and selection. % the employees said that they prefer indirect recruitment and selection. 72% the employees said that they prefer third party recruitment and selection. QUESTION: When do you prefer to go for manpower planning? S. NO. | OPINION| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1. | Yearly| 15| 60| 2. | Quarterly| 2| 8| 3. | No Fixed Time| 8| 32| Around 60% of the employees said that they prefer yearly manpower planning. 32 % of the employees said that they do not follow any pattern they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any fixed time manpower planning. 8% of the employees said that they prefer quarterly manpower planning. QUESTION: Do you think the present recruitment policy is helpful in achieving the goals of the organisation? S. NO. | OPINION| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1. | Yes| 10| 40| 2. | No| 7| 28| 3. | To some extend| 8| 32| Around 40% of the employees said that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment policy is helpful in achieving the goals. 28 % employees said that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment policy is not helpful in achieving the goals. 32% employees said that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment policy is helpful to some extend in achieving the goals. QUESTION: Is there any provision for evaluation and control of recruitment and selection process?